Turkish coffee can be served unsweetened, with moderate amounts of sugar, or very sweet. It combines finely ground coffee beans with water and brings the liquid to a frothy foaming stage, just below boiling. The sugar is added to the boiling water and never after being served in cups.
Turkish coffee is traditionally brewed in a pot called a cezve. After it reaches the desired stage, the brew — including the coffee grinds — is distributed into cups. For the best results, each coffee should be prepared individually (to feel one cup).
The coffee grind powder sinks to the bottom of the cup, and the remaining liquid is consumed. Leaving the coffee unfiltered results in a much higher caffeine concentration than other preparation methods.
A common addition to Turkish coffee is cardamom (a spice), best served with a loukum (Turkish delight).
The Fauna of the city
The world's media has portrayed Istanbul as a "cat haven" for years. Beautiful photos, tourism board videos, and award-winning documentaries show us a peaceful, happy, and healthy coexistence between street cats and the animal-loving local community of the over 15 million city.
The Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality’s Veterinary Services Directorate says the estimated number of stray animals – cats and dogs – is around 250,000.
The actual number is, however, much, MUCH higher.
Unfortunately, there is a considerable gap between idyllic Instagram images and the real life of stray animals of Istanbul, whose daily existence is full of suffering.
The same situation exists for dogs.
Its Huge dome is considered an unsurpassed architectural miracle. It kept the record of being the largest dome in the world until the Duomo was built in Florence in the 15th century.
The building reflects the religious changes that have played out in the region over the centuries, with the minarets and inscriptions of Islam and the lavish mosaics of Christianity. It was built as a Christian church in the 6th century CE (532–537) under the direction of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I. In subsequent centuries it became a mosque, a museum, and a mosque again.
Dervish is a Persian word broadly referring to followers of a Sufi Muslim religious order known as the Mevlevi Brotherhood. Dervishes participate in wild dancing rituals that are notable for their whirling movements. These began in the early 1200s but are still practiced by the Sufi today.
This brotherhood was founded by the mystic poet Rumi, who is also responsible for the whirling dancing ritual. He was walking within earshot of a goldsmith and began dancing in a whirling pattern to the sound of the hammer. He became dizzy, went into a trance, and believed that he felt god.
Since then, dervishes have participated in elaborate whirling that results in a mesmerizing trance-like effect and is thought to achieve a release of the soul from earthly ties. Visitors to Istanbul can purchase a ticket and watch the whirling take place live or watch them free of charge in some cafes, like the "Meşale Restaurant & Cafe" located atArasta Bazaar.
The ceremony in which the whirling takes place is known as a sema. As they whirl, dervishes hold their right arm up to receive blessings from heaven. One can appreciate the dreamy state that results from the methodical, repetitive, coordinated movements. Those who have seen the ceremony performed describe the experience as quite intimate. Some recall how austere and earnest the dervishes appeared, with their movements seemingly effortless and perfect.
When the tea is served, a cube of beet sugar is placed on the saucer beside the tea. The sugar is typically placed inside the mouth between the teeth, and as the tea is consumed, it washes over the sugar, adding sweetness.
The tea in Turkey is not drunk in cups but, like in the rest of the middle east, in glasses. Turkish tea glasses (Ince Belli) are small, dainty, and typically made with thin glass. These glass teacups are tulip-shaped and often have elaborate gold rims. The glass teacup's transparency allows drinkers to appreciate the tea's color.
In Turkey, when tea is shared among people, the narghile (water pipe) is often in the center, and tea drinkers share and enjoy it. Most of us know the narghile as a “hookah.” Hookahs are synonymous with middle eastern culture and are almost always present in social settings. A vessel with water is heated, and tobacco or charcoal is inhaled through one of the numerous hose extensions.
Turkish tea is a black tea beverage deeply rooted in the culture of Turkey. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is grown in the Rize province of Turkey. What sets this black tea apart from traditional black tea enjoyed worldwide is how it’s prepared, served, and enjoyed.
Tea in Turkey is called “Çay,” pronounced like “chai.” When you are in Turkey, tea is offered almost everywhere you go. It’s impossible to walk down a street, visit a shop, visit someone’s home, or visit a park without someone offering tea.
The tea culture of Turkey has an unspoken way that is more or less expected from the one who drinks the tea. The most important thing to remember when having tea is never to refuse tea when offered because if you do, it’s highly insulting.
Turkish tea should be sipped, not guzzled, and should never have condiments like milk.
Gözleme is a traditional savory Turkish homemade flatbread with different fillings. Its dough is made with only flour, salt, and water. Gozleme doesn’t have sugar and dry yeast in it.
Gözleme was first founded in the Anatolia region centuries ago. You can consider the Anatolia region at the heart of Turkish cuisine. When you visit Anatolian villages, local women sit beside wooden tables where they prepare the Gözleme dough. After Gözleme dough preparation, they place them onto gas-powered, thin-plated unique grills, called ‘sac‘, to cook at.
Today, you can find it in cafes and restaurants in metropolitan cities, where it is served as a delicious appetizer that can be enjoyed at any time of the day.
You can make this delicious flatbread with various fillings. The most common fillings are spinach, minced meat, mozzarella cheese, potatoes, white cheese, or pastırma.
One of Turkey's most popular sweets after baklava, these semolina cookies are baked until golden brown, then doused in a thick, lemon-infused syrup, which makes them exceptionally moist and tender. Şekerpare (lit. piece of sugar) is a classic dessert made in every Turkish household, sold in every bakery and pastry shop, and appearing on nearly every restaurant menu.
This sugary treat is also traditionally prepared for various family celebrations and religious festivities like Şeker Bayramı, marking the end of Ramadan. Şekerpare cookies are most often enjoyed with Turkish coffee but are also essential to any traditional afternoon tea time spread.
Balat is probably the most photogenic district of Istanbul. Balat, with its old narrow streets and striking bay windowed houses, once, has been home to the Jew population of the city. It has a cosmopolitan nature that connects various religions and cultures with synagogues, mosques, and churches. Travelers wishing to experience Istanbul’s old tissue and witness its history step by step before it is lost to modernization should see Balat.
Balat has become very popular with locals and tourists, but it still is much more relaxed and tranquil than the rest of Istanbul, which is absolute chaos. The orthodox Christian visitors have one more advantage because a visit to The Ecumenical Patriarchate and Saint George's Church can be combined with a visit to Balat.
The Patriarchate is located in what is known as Fener ("Phanari" in Greek) neighborhood. Fener was the center of the once sizeable Greek community of the city. The Greek community has been eliminated, but some important landmarks remain. One of these is the "Red School," or the "Fener Rum Erkek Lisesi," as it is known officially (Fener Greek school for boys). The Red Church (Meryem Rum Kirmizi Kilise in Turkish) is just around the Red School.
On the top of the hill stands Fethiye Camii, the Pammakaristos Byzantine Church. The Pammakaristos Church, also known as the Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos ("All-Blessed Mother of God"), is one of Istanbul's most famous Byzantine churches and was the last pre-Ottoman building to house the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Converted in 1591 into the Fethiye Mosque (Fethiye Camii, "mosque of the conquest"), it is today partly a museum housed in a side chapel or parekklesion. One of the most important examples of Constantinople's Palaiologan architecture, the church contains the most considerable quantity of Byzantine mosaics in Istanbul after the Hagia Sophia and Chora Church.
The streets of Balat are beautiful on their own. The street's ambiance will enchant you even if you are not seeking something. When we think of Balat, one of the first things that should come to mind is Merdivenli Yokuşu (the incline with steps). It serves as the neighborhood's emblem and is the location of the most famous Balat photographs. The homes on the Merdivenli Yokuşu have been reconstructed following the originals and are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site. They look fake and out of place if you think the rest of the building is worn out.
It would be best to visit the Balat antique stores to shop for presents or save something to remember your day in Balat. Remember to bargain, do not be a silly tourist. And also, keep in mind that most antiques are not “antique” at all… just modern artifacts made in China.
For me, what brings here locals and tourists is the myriad of cafes and restaurants. Most are modern establishments made to look old and traditional but attractive and cozy. The food is good, and the coffee is excellent.
The origin of Lokum -Turkish Delight- dates back to the Ottoman Empire. Sweets and confectionery have always been an essential part of Turkish cuisine. An old Turkish aphorism tells one to “eat sweetly and speak sweetly”.
A whimsical tale tells of the creation of Turkish delight: To appease his many wives, a famous Sultan ordered his confectioner to create a unique sweet. Eager to please his Sultan, the confectioner blended a concoction of sugar syrup, various flavorings, nuts, and dried fruits, then bound them together with mastic (gum Arabic, 'μαστίχα' in Greek), a priceless flavoring from the Greek island of Chios (Χίος). Hereafter, a plate of Turkish delight was served at daily feasts in the Ottoman court. After several attempts, a most delectable sweet emerged from the royal kitchens. The Sultan was so delighted with these delicious little gems that he proclaimed the sweet maker the court's chief confectioner! And this is the story of how Turkish delight was created.
Before the 18th century, honey and grape molasses were the only sweetening ingredients available to Ottoman confectioners. With the introduction of sugar in the late 18th century, Ottoman Empire transitioned to a new era of sweet making. Sugar brought the beginning of endless creative possibilities to Ottoman confectioners and sweet makers. It was during this time that Turkish delight, one of the oldest known confections in the world, was created in the great kitchens of the Ottoman court.
Turkish Borekis is a thinly rolled pastry, often the paper-sheet thin variety known as phyllo (yufka in Turkish), wrapped around various savory fillings or arranged in layers.
The myriad types of börek are unmatched delicacies when cooked to perfection in Turkish cuisine. Boreks can be fried, baked, cooked on a griddle, or boiled. Preferred fillings are cheese, minced meat, spinach, and potatoes.
There are different names and types of Turkish börek. In the form of rolls filled with cheese or minced meat mixtures and fried, böreks are known as "Sigara (cigarette) boregi". Other varieties are; Su boregi, Boshnak boregi, Kol boregi, Talash boregi, Pachanga boregi, Gul boregi, Cig borek, Kürt (Kurdish) boregi, Tepsi boregi, and so on.
Traditionally, no girl should marry until she has mastered the art of börek making. Böreks should be light and crisp, without a trace of excess oil. It's one of Turkey's most traditional pastry dishes that can be eaten any time of the day, from breakfast to dinner, either as a main dish, appetizer, or snack.
Turkish Delight was unveiled to the west in the 19th century. During his travels to Istanbul, an unknown British traveler became very fond of the Turkish delicacies, purchased cases of “rahat lokoum,” and shipped them to Britain under the name Turkish delight.
It is believed that Picasso enjoyed Turkish Delight daily to improve his concentration, while Napoleon and Winston Churchill relished pistachio-filled Turkish delights.
Today, Turkish Delight remains the sweet of choice in many Turkish homes. Enjoyed worldwide, the subtle flavors of Turkish Delight are known to compliment coffee and sweeten the breath at the end of a meal.